Management as an Art
The main elements of art are —
- Personal Skills
- Practical know-how
- Application of knowledge
- Result orientation
- Constant practice aimed at perfection
Management is basically an art because of the following reasons —
- A manager applies his knowledge and skills to coordinate the efforts of his people
- Mgt seeks to achieve concrete practical results
- Mgt is creative. It brings out new situation and converts into output
- Effective Management lead to realization of Organizational and other goals.
- Mastery in Management requires a sufficiently long period of experience in, managing.
Management as Science
The essential elements of Science
- Systematised body of Knowledge
- Underlying principles and theories developed through continuous observation, inquiry, experimentation and research.
- Universal truth and applicability.
- Organised body of knowledge can be taught and learnt in class room and outside.
- Mgt is a social science. It contains all the essentials of science. It is an inexact science.
- PERT, CPM, Cost MC, Finance, MB O etc
Thus, the theory (Science) and practice (art) of Mgt go side by side for the efficient functioning of an organization.
Management as a Profession
The essential attribute of a profession
- A well-defined and organised body of knowledge
- Learning and Experience
- Entry restricted by qualification
- Recognised national body
- Ethical code of conduct
- Dominance of service motive
Management is not a full-fledged profession now due to the following shortcomings.
- Skills not fully developed
- No uniform method of entry and Objective is monetary rather than service.
- Ethical code is not strict
- Associations are not statutory bodies
But in India, it is developing into a profession and it will be achieved in due course.