The key elements in organizational behaviour are people, structure technology and the environment in which the organizations operates. When people join together in an organisation to accomplish an objective, some kind of structure is required. People also use technology to help get the job done, so there is an interaction of people, structure and the technology. In addition, these elements are influenced by the external environment, and they influence it.
Key Elements in Organizational Behaviour
Each of the four elements of organizational behaviour will be considered briefly.
- People: People make up the internal social system of the organisation. They consist of individuals and groups. There are formal and informal groups.
Groups are dynamic. They form, change and disband. Organizations exist to serve people, rather than people existing to serve organizations.
- Structure: Structure defines the formal relationships of people in organisations. Different jobs are required to accomplish all of an organisation’s activities. There are managers and employees, accountants and assemblers. These people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can be effectively co-ordinated. These relationships create complex problems of cooperation, negotiation and decision-making.
- Technology: Technology provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. The technology used has a significant influence in working relationships. The great benefit of technology is that it allows people to do more and better work, but it also restricts people in various ways. It has costs as well as benefits.
- Environment: All organizations operate within an external environment A single organisation does not exist alone. It is part of a larger system that contains many other elements such as Govt., the family, and other organizations.
All of these mutually influence each other in a complex system that creates a context for a group of people. Individual organizations, such as factory or a school, cannot escape being influenced by this external environment. It influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions, and provides competition for resources and power. It must be considered in the study of human behaviour in organizations.