A conceptual framework for understanding organizational behaviour is presented by Durbin consisting of four core propositions, which are:
- Organizational behaviour follows the principles of human behaviour.
- Organizational behaviour is situational.
- Organizational behaviour is based on system approach.
- Organizational behaviour represents a constant interaction between structure and process variables.
Organizational behaviour follows the principles of human behaviour
Human beings in the organization are governed by the same physiological mechanisms both on and off the job. Internal mechanism s provide people an extra spurt of the appropriate harmone during times of stress, whether this stress is job or non – job related. Similarly, people at work are governed by the same psychological principles both inside and outside organizational life. Organizational behaviour is human behaviour in a particular setting.
Organizational Behaviour is situational
Psychologists and other behvaioural scientists have emphasized for years that individual is a function of the interaction between personal characteristics of the individual and environmental variables. In order to understand a person’s behaviour, the pressures placed upon him in a given situation must be understood. Aggressive behvaiour, for example, surfaces when a normally calm individual is forced into constant and close physical proximity with other people.
Pigors and Myres developed the concepts of situational thinking. Their analysis suggests that four situational variables are basic for anyone responsible for getting results accomplished through people.
- The human element such as individual differences. This category includes interpersonal relationships and other social aspects of the situation.
- The technical factor such as production methods and equipment, management procedure, and specialized skills in any job function.
- Space – time dimensions and relationships such as the size and location of a plant, office or work – station.
- Organizational wide policies designed to achieve major organizational objectives.
Organizational Behaviour is based on system approach
Systems thinking is an integral part of modern organization theory. Organizations are viewed as complex systems consisting of inter – related and inter – locking sub – systems. Changes in any one part of the system has both known and unknown consequences in other parts of the system.
When modifications in the system lead to desired, positive consequences, they are called functions. Unintended consequences in response to modification in the systems are called dysfunctions. According to the system point of view, every inter – action has both functions and dysfunctions.
Organizational Behaviour represents a constant interaction between structure and process variables
Structure refers to organizational design and position. Process refers to what happens, with or without the structure. A retail store may use both formal advertising and public relations functions (structure) to help build its image in the community. However, most of the store’s image is formed by words of mouth from satisfied and dissatisfied customers and employees.
Processes emerging within a group or organization are often evident only after they are heading towardss completion. It is almost structural requirement in any organization that managers deal with the discontents of their people, yet employees sometimes find other processes for handling them.
The difference between structure and process represents a vital concept for understanding organizational behaviour. Classical approaches to management neglected interpersonal processes – the human side of organization life.
Erring in the opposite direction (neglecting the influence of structural and technological factors) is a tendency on the part of some social psychologists. Deeper understanding of organizational behaviour requires an ability to follow the complex shifting in relative importance between structure and process variables.